Memory management deals with

CPU Utilization

Most of the programming language allows the dynamic calculation of address at run time. The memory protection requirement must be satisfied by the processor rather than the operating system because the operating system can hardly control a process when it occupies the processor.

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Thus it is possible to check the validity of memory references. Sharing — A protection mechanism must have to allow several processes to access the same portion of main memory. Allowing each processes access to the same copy of the program rather than have their own separate copy has an advantage.

C++ Programming/Memory Management

For example, multiple processes may use the same system file and it is natural to load one copy of the file in main memory and let it shared by those processes. It is the task of Memory management to allow controlled access to the shared areas of memory without compromising the protection. Mechanisms are used to support relocation supported sharing capabilities. Logical organization — Main memory is organized as linear or it can be a one-dimensional address space which consists of a sequence of bytes or words. Most of the programs can be organized into modules, some of those are unmodifiable read-only, execute only and some of those contain data that can be modified.

To effectively deal with a user program, the operating system and computer hardware must support a basic module to provide the required protection and sharing. Different modules are provided with different degrees of protection.

Memory Management

There are mechanisms by which modules can be shared among processes. Sharing can be provided on a module level that lets the user specify the sharing that is desired.

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Physical organization — The structure of computer memory has two levels referred to as main memory and secondary memory. Main memory is relatively very fast and costly as compared to the secondary memory. Main memory is volatile. Thus secondary memory is provided for storage of data on a long-term basis while the main memory holds currently used programs.

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The major system concern between main memory and secondary memory is the flow of information and it is impractical for programmers to understand this for two reasons: The programmer may engage in a practice known as overlaying when the main memory available for a program and its data may be insufficient. It allows different modules to be assigned to the same region of memory. One disadvantage is that it is time-consuming for the programmer. In a multiprogramming environment, the programmer does not know how much space will be available at the time of coding and where that space will be located inside the memory.

Memory Management

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