Deals with the study of population that are considered as a unit

Population Ecology - Introduction

Population members having the selected numbers are included in the sample. In practice, the lottery method described above can be cumbersome, particularly with large sample sizes. With the Random Number Generator, you can select up to random numbers quickly and easily. Or you can tap the button below. Suppose we use the lottery method described above to select a simple random sample. After we pick a number from the bowl, we can put the number aside or we can put it back into the bowl.

If we put the number back in the bowl, it may be selected more than once; if we put it aside, it can selected only one time.

Population Studies

When a population element can be selected more than one time, we are sampling with replacement. When a population element can be selected only one time, we are sampling without replacement. The mean of a population is denoted by x. Sample size is never bigger than population size. The population mean is a statistic.

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Your exact population will depend on the scope of your study. For instance, say your research question asks if there is an association between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction in nurses. In this case, your population might be nurses in the United States. However, if the scope of your study is more narrow e. For example, if you do not have good reason to believe that your results will apply to all nurses in the United States, then your population will need to be more specific.

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To summarize: your sample is the group of individuals who participate in your study, and your population is the broader group of people to whom your results will apply. As an analogy, you can think of your sample as an aquarium and your population as the ocean.

Population & Migration Unit Review (AP Human Geography)

Incomplete dominance results in a blending of traits. In cases of multiple alleles, there are more than just two possible ways a given gene can be expressed. We also now know that most expressed traits, such as the many variations in human skin color, are influenced by many genes all acting on the same apparent trait.

In addition, each gene that acts on the trait may have multiple alleles. Environmental factors can also interact with genetic information to supply even more variation. Thus sexual reproduction is the biggest contributor to genetic variation among individuals of a species. Twentieth-century scientists came to understand that combining the ideas of genetics and natural selection could lead to enormous strides in understanding the variety of organisms that inhabit our earth. Scientists realized that the molecular makeup of genes must include a way for genetic information to be copied efficiently.

Each time cells divide to form new cells, this vast chemical library must be copied so that the daughter cells have the information required to function. Inevitably, each time the DNA is copied, there are minute changes.

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Most such changes are caught and repaired immediately. However, if the alteration is not repaired the change may result in an altered protein.


Altered proteins may not function normally. Genetic disorders are conditions that result when malfunctioning proteins adversely affect the organism. In very rare cases the altered protein may function better than the original or result in a trait that confers a survival advantage. Such beneficial mutations are one source of genetic variation.

Another source of genetic variation is gene flow, the introduction of new alleles to a population. Commonly, this is due to simple migration.